Moving time windows

Reducers can operate over moving time windows.

With the reduce processor, three parameters are used to define a moving time window: -over, -every, and -on. With put, only -over is used. The -over parameter is known as the window, because it specifies a moving window of points up to the moment at which the reducer is run. The window may be greater or less than the interval -every, but is typically some multiple of -every.

For example, the snippet below emits a new point every hour at 15 minutes past the hour, using all points received in the past 6 hours:

  -over :6 hours:
  -every :hour:
  -on :00:15:00: a = avg(foo)
| ...

Its first point will be at 15 minutes after the first hour in which data arrives, and it will continue emitting points every hour at 15 minutes past the hour, each being the average of points received over the preceding 6 hours. It ignores any upstream batch marks, and does not emit any batch marks of its own.

When an -over window is specified, The optional parameters -from :moment: and -to :moment: allow you to explicitly state the range of time covered by the stream. For example, if you were computing a trailing yearly average from points that fall on the 15th of each month, -from :2013-01-01: and -to :2015-01-01: let you specify that two full years of time is represented by these points. Without it, yearly averages involving the first month would not be produced, because the points themselves only span part of a month. And if there was no data for the final months, the -to parameter would force results to be produced for those empty months.

If you want the reduce to be driven by an upstream batch processor, but with a window of different size than the batch interval, specify -over without -every. reduce will emit a point when it receives a batch mark, using points within the current window. In this use, the batch triggers computation according to its interval, but the -over parameter controls which points are used by reduce in its computation.

When using a put processor, only -over may be specified, since it runs on each point as it is received.